Index

Abelson, Robert P:, 473, 477
abstract categories. 31, 77
abstract formal products, 95
abstract machines, 62
abstract manifestation of person, 76
abstract mechanisms, 200-201
abstract nature of "hurricaneness," 77
abstract objects, 7
abstract patterns, 78
abstract structure, 78
abstract summary of global qualities, 199
abstraction, 97
accountability, 309; in face of uncertainty,
312
accuracy of replication, 129
accusative case, 408
Achilles, 149-91, 200; in Jardin du Luxembourg,
430-57
"Achilles book," 444-55
Acker, Sir Donald, 297
acoustico-retrieval, 152
acoustics, 138 acquired tastes, 428 active signals, 180
active symbols, 176-78, 180, 265
Adam, 126, 340, 346
ADAN, 309-16
adding machines, 358, 361; information processing by, 371
ADNA, 309-10, 312
afterlife, 328, 383; punishment in, 322
aggression of personoids, 308
aim of behavior, 134
"A-kill-ease," 447
Albert, Martin L., 477
algae, 121
Alice, 349-50
"aliveness" vs. "deadness," 448
"all at once" vs. "bit at a time," 432, 439, 450
52
Allah, 30 alligator, 434
allusions, 114
alphawaves, 112
alternate life-support media, 145
altruism, 142, 228
aluminum beetle, 111
ambiguous sentences, 14
Americans in Viet Nam war, 114
amino acids, 125; naturally occurring, 126
ammonia, 126
amoebae, 121
amusement park rides, 196
ANAD, 309-10
Analytical Engine, 63-64, 86
anarchism, 260
Anderson, Alan Ross, 470
Anderson, Cobb, 253-63
Andromeda, 137-39, 406
anemone, 121
anesthetic, 406
angels, 333
aroma, 122. 406
animals: behavior of, 142: consciousness of, 9, 392 feelings attributed to, 83, 134: having something in common with, 110; language facility of, 101, methods for study of 35 Self

concept of, 266, as survival machines, 134; see
also specific species
animate vs. inanimate matter, 121
animation, 212-13
animism, 114, 120
anomalies, 462
ant colonies, 146, 162-66, 168-76, 184, 192, 195,
199
ant trails, 165
antagonisms, mutually gravitating, 306
Anteater, 149-90
anthropology, 41
anthropocentrism, 80
anthropomorphism, 112, 192
antimatter, 388
antimonies, 306
ants, 114; individual personalities of, 335; see also ant colonies
"apeness," 35
apes: intentionality ascribed to, 365; language of,
106, 470
appetite, 395
apple: eaten by Adam, 340; event of seeing, 330
Arbib, Michael, 472
arcana of universe, 347
Arctic, climate of, 139
Aristotle, 6 Armstrong, D. M., 478
Arnauld, 237
art of listening to fugues, 191
artifacts, attribution of understanding to, 358
artificial flesh, 54
artificial information-processing devices, 233
artificial intelligence, 87, 193, 217, 233, 269, 274,
282, 343, 353-82, 465; critics of, 471-72; directions in current research on, 294; and otherminds, °56; and personetics, 317; of robots, 362-65, 471; self-understanding, 412; simplicity of simulations in, 318; skepticism about, 69; and state of technology, 366-67; and systems theory, 358-62
artificial sex, 309
artificial signaling, 377; of feeling by machines, 60
artists, 3 1
Asimov, Isaac, 263
assassination buffs, 462
asymmetry, 305
asympotic approach to sentience, 291
astronauts, 142
atheism: among personoids, 311; among psychiatrists, 330
atomic level, 36
atomic physics, 36, 39
atoms, 3, 34, 39, 98, 466; and anima, 122; complex patterns of, 124; envisioning of, 144; idea of being made of. 33; molecules formed from, 125: nuclei of. as hypothetical entities, 79; quantum mechanics of, 145; spirit as restlessness of, 120: stable pattern of, 125
ATTACCA, 159
Attneave, F., 473
attribution: of cognitive states, 358, 366: of emotions, 83. of intentionality,364, of understanding,358
auditory chauvinism. 434
auditory nerves, 232

auditory neurons, 438
Aunt Hillary. 164-66, 170, 174, 180-8I. 183-87. 192. 351
author, brain of, 47, 464
authoritarianism, 342 ,
autism. 469
autobiographers, primate, 460
automata, 392
automata theory, 275
automatic doors, 358
automatic mill, 109
automobiles, see cars autonomous structures. 192
Autotomy group . 269-73
awareness, 35, 122; see also consciousness; self
awareness
axioms, 424
axons, 435-36; in Einstein's brain book, 437, 441



Babbage, Charles, 63-64, 86
babies: consciousness of, 8; protectiveness to
ward, 108; whimpering of, 114
baboons, 106
Bach, _Johann Sebastian, 150, 153-55, 164, 186,
382, 405, 433, 449
bacteria, 121
Baker, Adolph, 467 bank robbery, 220
Banquo, 464
BAT-itude, 406, 410, 411
bats, 192; subjective experience of, 393-98, 402, 409-14
BATs, 406. 407, 411, 412, 478
Battens, Sir W'., 106
"batter's helmet," 410
Baum, I-. Frank, 236
"be-able things," see BATS
bearers of spirit, 122
beauty, nature of, 455, 456
beer, taste of, 428
bees, 31
Beethoven, Ludwig van, 433, 440
behavior, 31; animal, 142; of ant colony, 166, 168; collective, 191; diversity of, in machines, 63; external, 93; global principles of, 385; imitation of, by machines, 55; informality of, 65-66;and intentionality, 365; mental states as cause of, 392; molecular, 34; norms of, and study of animal societies, 41; organization of brain and control of, 10, 11, 14: purposeful, 172; self regarding, 266; simulation of, 73; social, 34; of survival machines, 134-37,139: understanding
indicated by, 366
behavioral science, 34
behavioral tests, 366
behavioral theories, 55
behaviorism, 93, 94, 107: and artificial intelligence, 371; causal, 400. 401; and personetics.308
beliefs, 196; of animals. 83: brain as storehouse of, 282; coded, 200: dichotomy between logic and, 314; false, 417-21, 425-26: in inanimate objects, 381; in life after death. 143; of machines, 361-62; as mental content, 369; and point of view, 221; unconscious, 12
"believing svstem," 277
Belinskv, Alexander. 100-6
Bennett, Charles, 342, 477
Berkeley, Bishop George, 299
Bert, 204. 206
BEX, 261
"Big Bang," 40, 125, 195. 460
Big Metal Hawley, 238

bio-chauvinism, 351
biochemical cocktail-shaker, 126
biochemistry. 372
biological history. 80
biological machines, 109
biology: integration of physics and psychiatry with, 39: materialism in, 34; molecular, 36: origin of thought, 41; principles of, 142: found mystery facing, 141
birth in game of Life. 319
-'black boxes;' 93, 94
Black Death, 396
black holes, 6, 458; of the mind, 279
Blackburn, Simon, 468
blasphemy, 325, 329, 331. 341
blind people: explaining experience of seeing 402; simulation of vision in, 231, 411-12, 4 sonar of, 397
"blind sight," 481
Block, Ned, 373, 469. 478, 479
blurring of levels, 380
boats, toy, 430. 437
Bobrow, Daniel G., 473
Boden, Margaret, 471
Bodhidharma, 45
body: brain located outside of, 218-40; carbon based, 250: as colony of genes. 134: control of 5, 95; dream of, 346; external symmetry 404; feedback principles in, 135; function without mind or soul, 383-84; hemoglobin molecules in, 125; implantation of mind 242-52; as machine, 367; manufacture of, 242; me-ness attached to viewpoint of, owning one's, 5: and propagation of genes 143; of robot, 21, 268; self as dream of, self inhabiting, 24; soul in, 47; tuning of n and, 248; as vessel to bear spirit, 121
body-image pathologies, 251
Body-switching, 5-7, 465
Boer, Steven, 467
bogies, belief in, 66
book plus process, 444; see also Achilles b Einstein book
hooks: copied by hand, 128; descriptions of people in, 21: as information transferring technology, 252; see also fictional characters
hoppers, 255. 256. 258-65
Borges,Jorge Luis, 19-20, 20-21, 42, 49, 344 348-52, 467, 476
Bouwsma, 0. K., 474
Bovine, 304
bovine genes, 385
Boysen, Sally, 470
Brahman, 30
Brahms, Johannes. 225. 232, 233
brain: activity of, 342: alphawave frequent 112; of author, 47; bat, 394; binary algebra circuits of, 291: blanked, 246. 251: car based, 259; causal powers of, 374; Cents Lions of, 304-6, 318; contrasted with comp 252: damage- 481-2; disembodied. 20'. 218-40. 473: dualist concept of, 388: ironic, 70: evolution of, 303-5; flexibility 200; and genes, 139; of God, 48: gridlock 273; haying vs. being, 5'~ hemisphere 203-8; histological examinations of, human, compared to chimpanzee, 105 language facility, 101: levels of, 182, 281; of description of 472; localized centres of functions in, 303: LSD in, 413: mapping 169, 177; mental states as product of, mind vs. (see mind vs. brain); neurobiological research on, 42; vs, neurons, 167, neurophysiology of. 369: owning one's, 5: potential reliving experience coded in, 156; processes

in, 11-12; and propagation of memes, 143; properties of sequences in, 367; questions about, 32; read on symbol level, 181, 183; reconstruction of sound in, 152; reductionist view of, 35, 162. 391; relation between experience and, 212; relationship of ideas to, 194; research on, 217; simulation capacity of, 141; simulation of. 363-64; spare, 22f>-31; stratified organization of, 199: structural integrity of, 449; structure and activity of, 435-36; as substrate of intelligence, 90; and survival machine, 141; thinking about one's, 174; tissues of, as vehicles of information. 268: transplanting of, 5-6; unique configuration of, 252; in the vat, 474; visual cortex of, 231; wind chime metaphor for, 197-98
Brain-book immortality. 458
brain damage, 409, 481-2 brain death, 106
brain-reading machine, 416, 419-26
brain state, 178, 182, 282
brainstorm, 77
brain-transplant thought experiments, 220, 466
brainwashing, 386
branchings in evolutionary tree, 87
Brandenberg concerto no. 2 (Bach), 381
Brccht, Gcotgc, 475
bridge, game of, 7
British Crown Jewels, 93
brotherhood of man, 464
Brown, G. E., 145
Bruhler, 225
bubbling up of conscious thoughts, 283
Buddha Nature, 30
Buddhism, 310
buffer storage of incoming information, 141
building blocks: letters as, 180; mathematical,
298; molecular, 127, 128, 130 burial rites, 226
Burns, Robert, 20
butterfly, metamorphosis of caterpillar into, 401
Buxtehude, Dietrich, 190
bypassing of lower levels. 182



C, middle, 213
Cadmus, Sally, 242, 244, 251
calculations, fake, 75
calligraphy, 154
calves, newborn, 385
Calvin, William H., 193, 473
cameras, 28, 29
canned sentences, 92 Cantor, 396
Canyon, 306
Capitan, W1. H., 478
Capra, Fritjof, 38
capricio-deterministic trajectories 386
carbon, 242
carbon dioxide, 126
Carroll, Lewis, 348, 444
cars: attribution of understanding to, 358: en
gines of, 11, 381
Cartesian mental substance, 371, 372
Cartesian negation, 224
cash registers, 75' ,
Cassander. 204-9, 212`
Castaneda, Hector-Neri, 467
caste distribution of ants, 168-76, 178, 187, 193. 199-200
Castler, 308
Cat, Schrodinger's, 38, 45. 46
CAT-scanning, 7
catatonia, simulation of, 91

categories, 192. 343; abstract, 31, 77
caterpillars, 401
cats, 31; and Turing test, 85
Caulfield, Holder, 406
causal behaviorism. 400, 401
causal powers, 362, 364, 365, 367, 369, 372, 374,
381; and "right stuff," 365-66
causality, I96-97, 343; of brain, 374; closed loop of. 281
cells, 27, 88; activity of, 35; body as colony of,134; first living, 131; physiology of, 36; proliferation of, 119; replacement of, 4
centrifugal force, 196
cerebroscope, see brain-reading machine
chains, molecular, 125
Chaitin, Gregory J., 342, 477
Chase, Mr.. 426-29
chauvinism, 80; auditors, 434: bio-, 351
chemical messages, 200
chemistry, 35, 54; of life forms, 142; life in terms
of, 85; of nuclear particles, 145; and raw
materials of life, 126
Cherniak, Christopher, 269-83
chess, 93, 199; computer, 55, 82, 83, 90, 136
Chess Challenger VII, 114 childhood, lessons of, 386
children: talking to trees by, 335; see also babies chimpanzees, 10; language of, 100-8, 273, 470;self-consciousness in, 471
China, experience of being, 192
Chinese room thought experiment, 355-69, 371,
373, 375-82, 459
Chinese subsystem, 360-61 chloride ions, 125
choice, 323, 336; see also free will
Chomsky, Noam, 106
Chopin, Frederic, 32, 107, 381, 406
Chopper, Nick, 236 Chris, 69-92
Christian Science, 425
Christianity, 57, 310
chromosomes. 133 Church, Alonzo, 58
Churchland, Patricia, 477, 479
Churchland, Paul, 479
Cinerama, 221, 238
cistron. 133
civilization, model of, 290 clairvoyance, 66
Clark, Arthur C., 276
classes: of activities. 124; formulation of, 31, 32
Clecklev, Hervev Ml., 479 Clever Hans, 480
cloning, 56: by Teleclone, 4, 7
closed-circuit television, 20
closed loop of causality, 281
closed vs. open systems, 451
Clossman,
Cars, 468
closure, 304
cobbler, 466
"coded" potential. 156
coding of meaning, 381-82 coffee tasting, 427-28
cognition, 368; simulation of, 353
cognitive development, 31
cognitive dissonance. 395
cognitive psychology, 12-14
cognitive science. 13-14,201,271,274.366,465, 470, 482
coincidence, 199. 462: of levels. 183
Colby, Kenneth Mi., 469
collective behavior, 191
Collins, Allan, 473
Color, perception of, 479
Columbus, Christopher, 296

coma, Riddle-induced, 270-76
commonsense, language of, 30
communication: among ants. 167; with ant colony. 165: lines of. 14; and primate language, 107; with universe by radio, 137-38; visual, 30
communism of ant colony, 169, 184-85
competition, 130-31
complementarity, 156, 173, 335
complexity. 124
"computational glasses," 75
computational operations on formal elements, 357, 363, 366, 367, 372
computer science, 317. 379
computer vision, 193
computers. 56, 88; of Andromedans, 138-39; capacity for thought of, 86-87 (see also artificial intelligence): chess-playing, 82, 83. 90, 136: consciousness of, 8: as duplicate of brain, 226, 230, 236-37; evolution of, 87-88; factory-fresh. 246, 252; "intelligent," 13, 86; and laws of physics, 75-76; meaning of word, 87; memory of, 74; mistakes made by, 87; and Riddle of the Universe, 269; robot controlled by, 21; see also programs; simulations
concepts: extending, 77; shift of, 196
conceptual slipping, 408
conclusion, errors of, 62-63
concrete material products, 95
concussion, 410
conditioned reflex, 63
conditioning, 107
conditions: of satisfaction, 362, 369; of understanding, 356
Confucius, 340
consciousness, 7-15, 32, 35, 39, 122, 134, 250, 274, 436, 466, 468, 470; in ant colony, 146; areas of brain involved in, 202; of body, 225; concepts of, 7-15; duplication of, 368; essence of, I81; evolution of, 141, 468-9; feeling of, programmed into computer, 264, 265, 267; and free will, 339; as gift, 305; interlevel feedback in, 281; levels of, 85, 380--81: mind as home of, 224; and mind-body problem, 391, 392: in objection to thinking by machines, 5961, 63; organic subject of, 233; person as center of, 7; personoid, 318; and primal loop. 283; and quantum mechanics, 39. 42, 43; and reductionism, 162, 392-93: riddles of, 458: selfregarding behavior without, 266; and spirit, 120; thought and feeling in, 81; theory of, 303-5; undeniability of one's own, 387; universe without, 386
content, see form vs. content contexts, 413
continual loop between levels. 343
contradictions, 306, 424, 425; belief in, 315; of
brain, 304-6, 318; interlevel. 277; and personoids, 301
control: levels of, 304: of the body as the mind's product, 95; of self, 453; subsystems fighting for, 342
conspiracy buffs, 462
"conspiracy theory," 33
conventions, 114
Conwas. John Horton, 319
Copernicus, 58, 144, 458
copy of individual, 408
copying fidelity of replicators. 128, 131
corpus callosum, 14
Cosmic Process, 334
cosmos, synthetic, 298
counterexamples of theorems, 151, 153
countries: activity in, 342; behavior of, 191; symbol level of, 192, 193

cows: idea of killing, 114; moo of, 162; simulation
of, 94, 372; soul of, 386
Crab, 149-90
creational interventions, 300
creative self, dichotomy of, 283
creativity. 86, 294
Creator of pet sonoids, 303, 310, 314-17
Crick, Frances, 36, 39
critical mass, 168
crystals, formation of, 125
C3PO, 87
Cube, Magic. 342
Cube with Magic Ribbons (Escher), 156
cubes, 125
cults, 386
culture: of personoids, 303: replicators of, 142-44
currency: for exchange of ideas, 413; of signs and patterns, 107
curvature of space, 458
Cushing, Annie, 253, 258
cybernetic universe, 318
cybernetic wobble, 426
cybernetics, 297


DAAN, 309-10
dactylic hexameter, 13
daisy, plucking petals off, 47
damnation, 328
DANA, 309-10
Darling, Candy-245,247-49
Darwin, Charles, 124. 129, 130, 133
Darwinian epic, 460
Darwinians. 35, 36
data banks, 358
Davidson, Donald, 401, 468, 478
Davies, Paul, 48, 468
da Vinci, Leonardo, 144. 434, 440
Davis, Lawrence, 474
Dawkins, Richard, 122-23, 124-46, 195, 458, 472
Day of judgment, 464
death, 348; anticipation of. 105; experiencing, everywhere but "here," 411; fear of, 291; in Game of Life, 319; general concept of, 31;hurting others by one's. 383; life after, belief in, 143: of Martha. 106; meaning of, Ill; of mind, 244: questions about, 32; resistance to, 110, 115; simulation of, 308; and spirit, 121; terror of, 255-57; unacceptability of notion of own, 30
DEC PDP-10 computer. 380, 412
decoding of chime state, 199
degrees of understanding, 357
De Long, Howard, 470
Demand characteristics, 480
demiurgi, 346
Demon: Descartes Evil, 213, 473-4: Haugeland's 376-8; Searle's, 376, 378, 380
Dennett. Daniel, 73. 75, 84. 217-29, 230-33, 235 38. 240, 351, 375. 408, 466. 468, 473, 475-78 De Reinzie. 242
Descartes, Rene, 35, 213. 237, 238, 318, 350, 388, 462,473-74
Desdemona, 464
design, 120
desire(s). 84.95. 134. 196: of animals. 83: of computers, 83; and spirit, 120; unconscious, 12
desolation. 288
de Sousa. Ronald, 230-31. 473
destruction: of animals. 105: of inanimate objects, 114
determinism, 320, 323. 337-38, 343; in soul-free universe- 386

devil, nature of, 334, 342
Dewitt, B. S., 468
Di of Antus, 188
dialectics of dreams, 345
diamond crystals, 125
dice playing, 45, 48
dichotic listening tests, 14, 466
dichotomy, 158; between logic and belief, 314
Dickens, Charles, 179, 182
differentiation of personoids, 302
digestion, 8, 361
digital computers, 56, 59, 61, 64; capacity to think of, 368
digital model, 97
dimensionality, 298, 309
Diophantus, 150, 153
direct evidence, 80
direct perception, 76
direction of fit, 362, 369
Dirksen, Lee, 109-13, 115
discrete state machine, 65
discrimination tests, 428
disembodied brains, 202-12, 217-31, 473
Dizzard, C., 269-75
DNA, 80, 88, 89, 94, 127, 128, 142, 404, 406, 458; interactions of RNA and, 274; recombinant, 271; as template, 242
Dobb, Professor, 296, 299-317
dogs. 9, 31, 273; capacity for thought of, 32; in tentionality ascribed to, 365; and Turing test, 85
dolphins, 9. 253
domino-chain network, 194-95
Doney, Willis, 474
doom, recognition of, 113, 115
doors: automatic, 358; of brain, 452
Doppelganger, 327, 413, 474
double bind, 325
double blind experiments, 480
"double-take," 20
Douglas firs, 121
downward causality, 196, 197, 343
dreamed people, 345-48, 350, 406, 462
dreams, 8, 96, 98, 250; "Am I My Body's Dream?," 346; Descartes on, 350-51; without dreamers, 351; not remembered, 412
dream-writing machines, 458
Dreyfus, Hubert, 373, 471
drinking, 255
drives, global coherence of, 386
dualism, 268, 343, 371-72, 381, 383-88, 407, 476, 477, 478
Du Bois-Reymond, Emil, 36
duplicate people, 474-5
duplication, distinction between simulation and, 369-71
duty, 341
Dykes, Robert, 478


ears: hearing without, 225; sound hitting, 438
Earth, 32, 458; communication from Andromeda to, 137-38; cultural riches of, 259; duplicate, 231; eternal course of, 340; evolution of life on, 460; finite size of, 130: life on, 125; spaceship link between Moon and, 261; stable forms on, 125; teleportation from Mars to, 3, 4, 7
Eastern philosophy, 341
Eccles, John, 477
echolocation, 393
ecology, 140
economics, 140
ecosystems, destruction of, 41
ecstasy, 95, 348

EDAN, 310, 311
EDNA, 291, 297
Edwards, Jonathan, 329 ego(s), 8, 12; merging of, 307 egocentric point of view, 410 eigenstates, 43-44; random, 45
Einstein, Albert, 37, 45, 48, 196, 413, 458; vs
book, 442
Einstein book, 434-45, 450, 452, 459
electric sparks, 126
electrocuted person, 406
electrodes, 35
electroencephalograms, 270
"electronic brains," 372
electrons, 213,292:influence of thoughton,195; minuscule capering of, 291; path of, 193; weaving the universe, 318, 458
elements, 125
ELIZA, 251, 254, 469
Elizabeth II, Queen of England, 144
Elliot, John, 137
embedded dialogue, 434-37
embryonic development, 131, 139
emergence: of person, 86, 352; of properties, 144; of self-consciousness, 41-2, 468
emotions, 11, 450; appeals to, 114; attribution of, 83; as automatic side effects to thinking, 81; avoidance of references to, 81; and intellect, 84, 107; and machines, 60; of personoids, 302, 305; size irrelevant to experience of, 289
empathy, 114; vs. emulation, 412; see also mapping empirical questions, I I
emulation, 56, 379-80, 412, 477
encephalitis, 482
encoding of knowledge, 171, 176 "end in view," 134
energy, 126, 127; matter as, 401; of system, 39 engineering, 54, 56
English, understanding, 355-60, 363-67, 378
79,405
English subsystem, 359, 360, 379
engulfing: of mind by mind, 375; of program by human brain, 359, 364
enlightenment, 333, 342, 463; meditative, 273 74
entelechies, 144
entities, differential survival of, 132
entropy, 39
envy of God, 329
enzymes, 89
epiphenomenalism, 388
epistemology, 37, 415-29; circular, 39-40, 42; personoid, 310
Ericsson, K. Anders, 471
errors: of conclusion, 62-63; first-order vs. second-order, 277; of functioning, 62-63
Escher, M. C., 156, 174, 221
esse, 299
essence, 122; of hurricanehood, 78; of living, 113; of mental, 364-65, 370
eternal life, 328, 329
eternal punishment, 317
eternity, 120
ethics: and amorality, 340; of research, 275-76: temporal vs. transcendental, 313
euphemistic synonyms, 114
Everett, Hugh, III, 45-46, 49, 458, 468
evidence, evaluation of, 201
evil, 462; concept of, of personoids, 308, 312; illumination of, 120; and punishment, 329; as suffering, 333
evil temptations, 322, 328, 333
evolution, 88, 121, 128-29, 199, 460, 468, 477; of ant colonies, 173; based on replicators other

than DNA, 142; and coding of global principles into synaptic structure, 385; of computers 87-88, ; of consciousness, 141-303-5 Cosmic, 333; Darwin's theory of, 124, 317; discontinuity in, 40: and errors in copying, 128; hereditary arrangements in, 119; linguistic, 302; of machines, 113; of molecules, 125; seemingly purposeful path of, 122; time before, 124
evolutionary biology, 196
evolutionists, 35
Excelsius of Tartarian, 288-90, 292-94
excluded middle, law of, 357
excretion, true nature of, 114
existence: of categories of things, 6-7; entities, 124-25; deep problem of, 124; of God, 311-16, 319, 320, 332; incomprehensible qualitv of, 33; of minds and selves, 466; ontological foundation of, 316
existential residence, 299
experience, 8, 25, 26; as basis for imagination, 394; conscious, 13; in language of sages, 30; mind as pattern of, 246; maximum brain can encompass of, 248-49; of mathematics, 301; neural theory of, 202-12; of personoids, 301; privacy of, 396; r e-creation of, 29; reducibility of, objection to, 399; as sentience, 406; subjeo tive character of, 14, 392-93, 395-96, 402-3, 409-14
Experimental Epistemologist, 415-26
experiments, 111
explanatory power, 179 exploratory initiative, 299
extending: of concepts, 77; of verb "to be," 78. 409
extrapolation, 394
extrasensory perception (ESP), 66-67, 470 eyes, 24, 26, 30, 219; artificial, 231; evolution of, 132; innocent, 27; of others, 24; tracking moving object with, 222
evevideos, 233, 234, 237-4!


facts: humanly inaccessible, 396; relationship between representational systems and, 396
failures, 287
Fall of Man, 340 fame, 20, 287
familiarity, 155
fantasies, 457, 458; philosophical, 230
Farker, 254-55
fascination, 121
Faught, W. S., 469
fear: in bat experience, 395; of death, 291
fecundity of replicators, 129, 131
feedback, 102, 426; absorbed by neurons, 385; artificial body controlled by, 235; between brain and body, 222; level-crossing, 85; negative, 135
"feed-forward," 135
feeling, 109; capacity for, 81; of emotions, 450
feelingless intelligence, 83, 84
feelings: brain as storehouse of, 282; imputed to animals, 134; of inanimate objects, 381; of machines, 113; nature of, 452, 456; of personal consciousness, 264-8; of personoids, 301;represented bsystem's state, 200 Feigenbaum, E.,'477 Feinman, judge, 100, 104 Feldman, J., 477
femininity, 72
Fermant, Johant Sebastiant, 186-90
fermat, 186
Fermat, Pierre de, 149-51, 186
fermatas, 183. 185 489

Fermat's Last Theorem, 150, 153, 186, 190
ferns, 121
Feynman, Richard, 44, 467
fictional characters, 47, 350-51, 461-64, 476; as real but nonphysical people, 387
"fictitious forces," 196
filing of memories, 282
film directors, 29
filtering and categories, 84
Findler, Nicholas V., 473
fire: god of, 344, 346, 348; simulation of, 370; see also flame
"first-generation" errors, 128
first-person perspective, 20, 29, 30, 268
fish, 121; feelings of, 82
five-alarm fire, 370
flame: internal, 86, 88, 90; as metaphor for soul, 408-9; spirit as, 120
flattening, 385, 386
flesh, artificial, 54
flexibility of computers, 381
flickering lights, 86
flutzpah, 49
focusing lens, 141
Fodor, Jerry, 318n, 475-77
folklore. 274
food gathering, 171
football pools, 127
footraces, 431, 457
forest: sound of tree falling in, 44; vs. trees, 161, 165, 166, 459
form vs. content, 153, 375, 406
formal principles, 357
formal shape, 369
formalization, 424 Fortinbras, 226-28 Foster, L., 478
four-color theorem, 269
four-dimensional hypersurfaces, 262
Fourmi, Lierre de, 188
Fourmi's Well-Tested Conjecture, 188
Fouts, Roger, 470
Frank, 415-26
Frankfurt, Harry, 474 Fred, 203
free will, 36, 198, 265, 283, 320, 453-54, 473, 476-77;removal of, 321-29, 332, 335-39, 341 43; as sentience, 406; universe without, 386
"free will paintbrush," 339
freedom, 120-22; of action, 300; of ants, 166; of personoids, 301; reprogramming of hoppers for, 264
French, understanding of, 358
frequency analysis, 141
Freud, Sigmund, 12 Freud's Crutch, 11-15
Frisby, John R., 475
Fugue's Last Fermata, 186
fugues, 154-59, 164, 173, 183, 190; improvisation of, 405; relationship between preludes and, 154-55
full system: determination of symbols by, 181; perception at level of, 200
functional states. 392
functionalism, 363, 371
functioning, errors of, 62-63
funneling, 282
future, prediction of, 197


G (note), 183
galaxies, 125; mapping of, 120; spiraled, 122, 14!
Galileo, 58, 458, 459
Gallup, Gordon G., Jr., 471

game of Life, 319-20, 385, 476
game theory, 312
Gandhi, Indira, 407
Garden of Eden, 340
"Garden of Forking Paths," 42, 482
Gardner, Allen, 470
Gardner, Beatrice, 470
Gardner, Howard, 481
Gardner, Martin, 476
Garrett, Merrill, 14, 466
gases, 145, 168, 170; atmospheric, 126; in soap bubbles, 125
GAX, 259
Gazzaniga, Michael, 481
Geach, Peter, 467
Gebhardt, 304
gee!, 184
general relativity, see relativity, theory of
genes, 129, 472; bovine, 385; neural patterns coded for in, 386; passing on of, 144; selfish, 123-34; survival machines for, 131-34, 137, 140, 141, 458
geology, 35
geometry, 298; non-Euclidean, 374
German: identity-asserting sentences in, 408; understanding of, 358 germ-line, 119
"ghost-inside-the-machine," 6, 450
ghosts, 5, 7; belief in, 66; novel writing as manu
facture of, 387
Gibson, James J., 467
Gilbert, 351
gliders, 320
"glitches," 77
global behavior, 385, 386
Globus, G., 472
gnosticism, 346
goalism, 197
goals: individual, 192; natural objects without, 120
God, 30; as author, 464; consistency of, 315; creation of universe five days ago by, 231; in dialogue with Mortal, 321-4!; and dice-playing, 45, 48; existence of, 311-16, 319, 320; false conception of, 330; immortal soul given by, 57; nature of, 330; as process and scheme, 333-34; universal wave function as brain of, 48; what is it like to be?, 406
god: of fire, 344, 346, 348; spirit as, 120
Gödel, Kurt, 277, 283
Gödel sentences, 274, 276, 475
Godelization, 306, 318
Gödel’s Theorem, 58-59, 343, 414
Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 338
goldfish, 114
Goodall, Jane von Lawick, 470
goodness: of angels, 333; concept of, of personoids, 308; illumination of, 120; and reward, 329 "gooks," 114
Gordon, G., 475
Gospels, 128
Gosper, Bill, 319, 320
government: of microminiaturized society, 289 structure of, 342
Graham, N., 468
grammar, deficient. 102, 106
grapefruit, thrown, 451
gravity, 125, 196, 339
Great Experience Feed, 207
Great Pyramids, 382
Gregg. Lee W., 473
Gregory, R. L., 466, 475
Griffin, Donald, 470
grooves of records, 432
Grunion. 121

guided missiles, 135
guillotined person, 406
Guinea, 106
Gunderson, Keith, 474
Gunkel, Pat, 240
Gustafson, D. F., 476


haircuts, 6, 164
hallucinations, 25, 225, 332, 346 ham radio, 76
hamburgers, stories about, 354, 359
Hamlet: Dennett's, 220, 226, 227, 232, 233, 235, 238, 351; Shakespeare's, 381, 462, 464 hand simulation of Al program, 373-74, 459 happiness, 329
Harding, D. E., 23-30, 31-33
Harman, G., 468
harmony, 155
harpsichord, 153
Hartree, 63
Haugeland, John, 373, 376-78, 471, 475
Haugeland's demon, 376-78
he-symbol, 266
head: electrons jumping around in, 292; firing of neurons in, 210-1 l; having no, 23-30, 467
headless monsters, 29
hearing: of computers, 87; through sounds, 379
heart, 360; beats of, 119; dream of, 346; evolution of, 132
heaven, 120, 340
Hechinger, Nancy, 412
Hegelian world substance, 371
Heisenberg, Werner, 38
Heiser, J. F., 469
helium, 125
hell, 120
Heller, Erich, 121
Hemingway, Ernest, 256
hemispheres of brain, 14
hemoglobin, 125 Hendrix, Jimi, 255
"hereafter" for personoids, 317
"here-centered, now-centered" frame of refer ence, 410, 411
hereditary units, 133
heterosexuality, 250
hierarchical conflicts of operation, 304
high-level vs. low-level description. 178
high-school students, 107
higher-level beings, 166, 192
higher-level laws, 174
higher levels of structure, 320
Hinayan Buddhists, 334
hippies, 258
Hofstadter, Douglas R., 69-95, 149-201, 265, 408, 430-57, 468, 470, 472, 475
holes: existence of. 6, 466; see also black holes
holism, 159-62, 173, 182, 190, 196-97, 338, 472; vs. reductionism, 162; translatability of reductionism and, 196
holismionism, 190 Holmes, Captain, 106 Homer, 444, 468
homunculi. 13, 305, 342, 362-63, 458, 473
Honderich, Ted, 476 Hope, Bob, 20
Hopkins Beast, the, 471
hormonal components of behavior, 36
horses, 480
houseflies, 10
Howell, Robert, 476
Hoyle, Fred, 137
Hubert, 226-31

Hughes, 299
Hughes, Howard, 217
Hughes, Patrick, 475
human condition, 72
human nature, 33
humanism, 38, 41; and scientific world view, 122
humanly inaccessible facts, 396
humor, 81
humpback whales, 138
Humphrey, N. K., 143
Humpty Dumpty, 187
Huneker, James, 107
hunger, 395
Hunt, Jason, 100, 101, 104-5, 109-13
hurricanes, 361; simulation of, 73-78
hurting: of sentient beings, 328; see also suffering
Huxley, Aldous, 38
Huxley, Thomas, 36
hydrogen, 125, 145, 242
hypothesis testing, 12


"I": active, 29; and dualism, 384; "here" and "now" and, 411; ineradicable sense of, 278; and interlevel feedback, 281; location of. 219. 220, 222, 223, 445; and memory, 4; nature of, 23, 27, 167, 181, 265, 306, 445, 450, 452, 453, 455,456,464; and self-recognition, 19-20; survival of, 227; in syllogism, 31; as used by machines, 411
Id, 12 idealism, 39
ideas, 8; mapping letters onto, 179; relationship of brain to, 194; storage of, 199, 282
identification, 114, 400; psychophysical, 391; see also mapping
identity, 4; mistaken, 29; of selves, 7
identity dilemmas, 445, 456
identity schemata, 297
ideology of strong Al, 359
idiots, 105
"If I were you ... ," 408
illusions, universe filled with, 386
imagery, 114
imagination, 23, 141, 222, 457, 459; experience as basis for, 394, 402; symbolic, 400; transcending interspecies barriers, 397
imbeciles, 105
imitation, unit of, 143
imitation game, 53-55, 57, 59, 65, 71-73, 92
immortality, 257-60; of genes, 133; in personetics, 302, 303, 308; through memes, 144
impedence match, 409
implementational levels, 380
impulse programmer, 206, 212
inconsistencies, 418
indeterminism, 42
indirect evidence, 80
indirect self-reference, 184
individual vs. class, 396
indivisible particulateness, 133
induction, scientific, 61, 63
Industrial Revolution, 86
Ineffabelle, Princess, 96-98
"I-ness," 47
infantile autism, 469
infatuation, 155
inference, 12
infinite regress, 200, 421
infinity, 315; simulation of, 308
information, 11; abstract piece of, coma induced by. 272; brain tissues as vehicles of, 268; buffer storage of, 141; encoding of, 41, 176; about size of nervous impulse. 65

information processing, 12-15, 370-71by stomach, 360, 361; technology of, 299
informational facsimile, 97
informational standing waves, 303
inner conflict, 342
"inner eye," 200
inner life, 9, 10, 13-14, 406
inner light, 9, 10
input-output patterns, 364, 371
insects, feelings attributed to, 83
inside, consciousness from, 8, 10
insomnia, 346
instantiating formal program, 364-f
instructions, 449
integrated circuit chips, 374
intellect: and emotionality, 107; human 59
intellectronics, 297
intellectual quarantine, 275
intellectualism, ant, 164
intelligence, 9; brain as substrate for, 90; candidates for, 93, of chimpanzees, 103; creation of, 316; development of higher and higher, 345, and emotions, 84; and evolution of brain 304 and formulation of classes, 31; incorporeal, 301; and individual brain cells, 166, machine,89; mistake-making as sign of, 89; real test of, 80, ; and reconfiguration, 200; reduced to behavior, 93; robot, 263; as sentience, 406; of societies, 472; synthetic, 305, 308; see also artificial intelligence
intention, 449; natural objects without
intentional stance, 84-85
intentionality, 358, 362-69, 371-7,defined, 358n, potion to do away with, 384; psychophysical theory applied to, 401; and subjective character of experience, 392
interacting particles, 145
interactionism, 388
interference effects, 44 .
interferon, 257, 258
interlevel feedback, 279 i
ntermediate levels: of organization, 175; of structure, 176
intermodal analogies, 402
internal combustion engines, 11
interneurons, 194
interpretation, 382; of information,370
interspecies barriers, 397
introactive causality, 197
introspection, 10, 12, 134, 451; reliability of, 471; and self-image, 41
introspective psychology, 369
intuition, 10, 46, 85, 99; logic overriding,32; primal, 335
intuition pumps, 375, 459
inverted spectrum, 479
inverting lenses, 412, 475
invisibility of lower levels, 89
Inward Power, 340
IQ test, 71
irony, 184
irreducibly mental properties, 401
"is," apparent clarity of word, 41
Ishmael, 350, 387
isomorphic self-symbols, 413


Jack the Ripper, 387
Jackson, Philip C., 471
James, William, 42
Jammer, Max, 467
Jansson, Gunnar, 475
Jardin du Luxembourg, 430, 436
Jauch. J... 467

Jaynes, Julian, 468-69
jealousy, 48
Jefferson, Professor, 60, 63, 377
Jesus Christ, 482
Jews, 114
Jodrell Bank radio telescope, 138
Johant Sebastiant's Well-Tested Conjecture, 189
John, E. R., 11, 466
JOHNNIAC, 350, 351
joint activation of self-symbol, 200
jokes: capacity to understand, 80; causing people to die laughing, 276
Jupiter, 419
justice: of God, 312; sense of, 329


Kafka, Franz, 409
Kaikki, Eino, 296
Kandel, Michael, 99
Kantianism, 328
Kaufmann, Walter, 469
Keller, Helen, 15, 482
Kenny, Anthony, 474
Kent, Clark, 388
Keyes, Daniel, 409
kitten, mew of, 162
Klane, Anatole, 110, 111
Klapaucius, 287-88, 290-94
Kleene, S. C., 58
knob settings, on intuition pump, 376
knowledge, 414, 473; encoded in caste distribution of ants, 171; and Fall of Man, 340; of own beliefs, 421; pieces of, 170; and power, 313;representation of, 170, 201, 473; storage of,176
Koestler, Arthur, 473
Kohler, Ivo, 475
Kripke, Saul, 400, 468, 478
Kyo-gen, 45


"labeled rooms," 452, 453
Lackner, James R., 14, 466
lactation, 94; simulation of, 372
laissez-faire, 185
language, 7, 470; and beliefs, 369; and consciousness, 470-71; difficulty with, 46, 48; facility of animals for, 100-8; learning new, 412; mastery of, 164, 177; as measure of soul, 107; as media of projection, 413-14; of personoids, 302, 309-11; processing of, 363; propositions expressible in, 396; self-protection through, 114; and self-regarding behavior, 267; simulation of ability to use, 294; slips of, 428; thinking in, 477; of thought, 274; understanding, 37840
Lao-tse, 340
Lashley, Karl, 13
last-minute transformation rules. 378
Latin, existence of, 7
"Laws of Nature," 477
layers of structure, 168, 176
L-dopa, 482
learning, 9, 142, 294; by an ant colony, 472; conditioned reflex as basis for, 63; modeling, 282
Ledoux, Joseph, 481
Legionnaire's Disease, 271
Leiber, Justin, 241, 242-52, 252
Leighton, Robert, 467
Lem, Stanislaw, 96-99, 287-94, 296-320, 408, 413
lemmings, 121
Lenneberg, E. H., 470
leprosy, 344

letter by letter reading, 179
level-crossing feedback loop, 85
level-crossing problems, 282
level-mingling, 380
levels, 158; of accuracy, 376; of ant colony, 146; coincidence of, 183; conflicts between, 318; confusion of. 74; continual loop between, 343; contradictions between, 277; of control, 304; of description, 84; difference in, 166; of explanation, 472; higher, 169; of implementation, 380-81; intermediate, 168, 176; mechanical, of molecules, 89; of mental operations and brain operations, 369; microscopic, 171; between principles and particles, 385; and process of creating self, 352; symbol, 182, 192; thinking on different, 336; underlying sets of, 177; of understanding, 357, 379; where meaning is visible, 173; of wholes and parts, 196; in windchime system, 198
Lewis, David, 466, 467, 475, 476
Lewis, Stephanie, 466
libertarianism, 185
Libet, Benjamin, 477
Library of Congress, 7
Lichtenberg, Georg, 278
life, 122; ancestors of, 130; beginning of, 124; biological, as complex form of machinery, 109; after death, belief in, 143; on Earth, 125; general principle true of all forms of, 142; machines as form of, 110; meaning of, 111; origin of, 126, 144; respect for, 110; study of, at all levels, 34
Life, game of, 319-20, 385, 476
light: returning through universe to point of departure, 287; seeing the, 334; speed of,32,137, 222, 224, 318; traveling in straight line, 120
lightning, 86; objective character of, 397-98; primordial, 126
linguistic ability, innate, 107
linguistics, 274, 470
liquids, 145
literary critics, 463
literary dualism, 384-88, 476
literature, emotional responses to, 81
Little Engine that Could, 268
Little Hawley, 236, 238
"little people," 200; see also homunculi
livers, 6. 360
lizards, 121
lobotomy, 35
lobsters, 266-67
"local" stimuli, 385
location: of consciousness, paradox of, 61; of person, 24, 27
Locke, John, 11, 13, 220, 465, 479
logic, 32; applicability to real world of, 343; internal, of representational systems, 193; mathematical, 58; multivalent, 311; overriding intuition, 32; of personoids' world, 301, 306, 313, 314, 317; rise of modern, 273; symbolic, 424; traps of, 431
"logical stupor," 304
longevity of replicators, 128, 129, 131
looplike self-reference, 279
loops, 194
loudspeakers, 432
love, 95, 121; and artificial intelligence, 370; created by spirit, 121; for person without soul, 384; and personetics, 316
Lovelace, Lady, 63-64
low-level explanation, 195
LSD, 412-13
Lucas, J. R., 277, 470, 475
lucidity, 346
Luria, A. R., 481

lust, 121, 395
Lycan, William, 467, 473


Macbeth, 464
McCarthy, John, 477, 361
McCorduck, Pamela, 472
machines: ability to think of, 53-67, 70, 84 (see also artificial intelligence); chess played by, 82; intelligent, 89; killing of, 111-13; mechanicalness of, 87-88; regarding oneself as, 110; subconscious concept of, 86; translations by, 99; see also computers
McMurrin, Sterling, 478
macroscopic domain, 144
madness, 463
Madonna of the Rocks (Leonardo), 440
magic, 345, 346
Magic Cube, 342
magic pill, free-will removing, 322-23
magnetism, 8
Mahayana Buddhists, 334 -
mammals: conscious experience of, 392; intentional stance toward, 85; see also specificspecies
man in imitation game, 71-72
manipulation, 114
many-body problem, 145 many-celled bodies, 134 Many Mansions, 366-67 many-layered system, 201
many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, 44-46
mapping, 378, 382, 404-5, 409, 412; of persononto ant colony, 192
maps, 140
Marconi, Guglielmo, 144
Margolis, A., 477
Mark III Beast, 111-13, 267, 471
Marks, Charles, 481
Mars, 126; radio communication between Earth and, 137; teleportation to Earth from, 3, 6, 7
MARS, see Motion and Resistance Systems
Marshall, J., 481
Martha, 101-7
Martians, 367; subjective experience of, 395-97
Marvell, Andrew, 294
masochism, 432 mass, 120
materialism, 34, 391, 459; and subjective character of mental phenomena, 392
mathematics, 64, 150, 151, 188, 274; and computer memory, 297; epistemological problems in, 414; of matter, 144-45; mirror puzzle in, 404; and objection to machines thinking. 58 59; of personoid cosmos, 298-302, 306-8; phenomenalism of, 301; worlds made of, 318
matter, 97, 122; as energy, 401; mathematics of, 144-45; vs. mind, 416
matter oriented mechanism, 86
Matterhorn, 124
Mattuck, Richard D., 145, 473
Maxwell, G., 472
Maxwell, James, 37
"me" as used by machines, 411
meaning: as hypothetical mental quality, 107; of 445; of life and death, 111; meaning of word, 456; vs. meaninglessness, 172; perversion of, in copies, 128; of physicalism, 400; and symbols, 370; and understanding, 357, 374, 379; of words, 30, 32, 428, 455-56
meaninglessness, 172; of formal symbol manipulation, 368: of squiggles and squoggles, 377
Means, Germaine, 246-251

measurement, 38; of brain states, 420
meat eating, 114
mechanical page-turner, 447
mechanism, 82, 109, 197, 277, 283; and interpretation of real world, 300; pattern oriented, 86; of soul-free universe, 386
meditations, 348
meditative enlightenment, 273-74
Melville, Herman. 350
memes, 142-44, 145, 413
memory, 122, 243, 246, 436, 481; absent accumulation of, 7; of body, 225; in book lus-process, 444; in brain process, 12; carved in stone, 119; computer's, 74, 76; extra from, 4; in game of Life, 319; and ' time, 453; long-term, 410-11; not continually conscious, 12; searching of, 12; she 261, 410-11; and spirit, 120; and structure, 282; two people having same, 307
memory-decoding glasses, 76
Mendel, Gregor, 133
me-ness, 48
mental events, 401
mental images, 21
mental life, intimacy between person at mental magnetism, 196
"mental pictures," 134
mental representation, I I
mental states, 362, 416; of animals, 365;as a cause of behavior, 392; imagining, 400; simulation of, 358, 365, 369-73
"mentalism," 39, 83
mentality, like milk or like a song, 95
mental-nonmental distinction, 361
Meredith, Marsha, 468
Merrill, D. D., 478
messages: between brain and subsystems, 13; chemical, 200
me-symbol, 266
metamagical themas, 69-92
metamathematical limitative theorems, 469
metamorphosis, insect, 401
metaphors, 192; of cognitive function consciousness, 304-5; for thinking about souls, 281
metaphysics, 337, 339; experiments in, 310; mind vs. matter, 416
metaprogramming, 261, 262, 264
methane, 126
MEX, 259, 261
mice, 393; trapping of, 110
Michelangelo, 212 microbes, 113
microchiroptera, 393
Microminians, Moon of, 294
microminiaturization, 289, 376
Miedaner, Terrell, 100-8, 109-15 milk, 94, 95, 372 mimicry, 307
mind, 25, 122, 466; and artificial intelligence 382, 355, 360, 364, 371-72; attached to body, 47; attributed "soul" as image in, 114; black hole of 279; boundaries of, 11; vs brain, 369,431,436,438,439,455,459; of chimpanzee 105; consequences of fact presented to 65; contents of, 38; dichotomy of conscious and unconscious, 283; epistemological circularity in view of, 39-40; functional components of, 14; of God, 48; grades of sophistication, 382: as home of consciousness, 224; imaginary worlds in, 47; implantation in a new body of, 242-52; interaction between world and, 451; mapping of, onto bat's mind, 412; vs. matter 383, 387, 416; miracle drug to annihilate, 383: and nature of mentality, 95; “nonlin-

ear" nature of, 294; nonquantum-mechanical computational models of, 43; objective concept of, 399; origins of, 144; other (see otherminds); owning one's, 12; philosophy of, 232; physical basis of, 393; physicists' notion of, 34; plea of animal heard by, 110; processes of, 11; products of, 95; reductionist view of, 36-38; and seeing, 30; as self-perceiving pattern, 200; as sentience, 406; simulation of, 74, 78; software replicators in, 145; and soul, 107; specialization of psychologists in understanding, 67; structure of, 274; study of, and computers, 353; tampering with, 293; taping of, 243, 252; tuning of body and, 248; and Turing test, 93; ultimate nature of, 94, 457
mind-body duality, 35, 40
mind-body problem, 391, 392, 396, 397
mind's eye, 21, 141, 283, 375 mind tapes, 243-9, 252
"miminal logic," 424
Minsky, Marvin, 240, 343, 475
miracle drug, mind-annihilating, 383-84
miracles, 313, 319
mirror image, being one's own, 406
mirroring of external universe, 82
mirrors, 28, 192-93; puzzle of, 404-5, 479; self reflecting, 304, 318-19
mistakes, 48
missiles, 90
mistake-making, 89
models, 88; of civilization, 290, 293; of consciousness, 304-5; created by personoids, 310; of Creation, 315; digital and stochastic, 97; of DNA-RNA interaction, 274; of hemoglobin molecule, 125; of intentionality, 367; internal, of representational system, 193; mechanical, of world, 300; nonquantum-mechanical computational, 43
modernist writing, 461
modes of perception, 156, 157 modularity, 413
modulations, 155
molecular biology, 36, 40 molecular hoopsnakes, 458
molecules, 3, 27, 34, 39; behavior of, 34; calculation of motion of, 153; evolution of, 125; formation of, 125; genetic, 41 (see also DNA); modern, 125; random movement of, 168, 170; water, 173-74
Monod, Jacques, 120, 129
Monty Python, 276
Moon, 32; conquering of, 296; of Microminians,
294; ownership of, 5; robot society on, 257-65
moons of Mars, 3
moral responsibility, 321-24, 327, 339
morality, 42, 107, 333, 336, 339-40, 385, 420; of
mind-annihilating drug, 383-84; and suicide,383
Morowitz, Harold J., 34-47, 467, 468
Morrison, 100, 103, 104
Morse code, 76
mortal in dialogue with God, 321-41
mortality, 89
Mortensen, Chris, 477
Morton, Adam, 478
Moslems, 57
Motion and Resistance System (MARS), 234-35, 240
Moulton, Steve, 240-1
mouth, 26
mouth-directing neurons, 438
mu, 159-63, 181-83
MU-picture, 180-83
multiple personalities, 479-81
multiple stories, 47

multiple stories, 47
multivalent logic, 311
murder among personoids, 307
muscle, evolution of, 132
music: emotional responses to, 81; hearing of,379; nature of, 448, 452; stored in records, 431-33, 439, 440, 451, 452
mutation, 41, 57 myrmecologist, 163
myrmedian, 169
mystery: of God, 315; of life, 383
mysticism, 40, 83
mythology, 276


NAAD, 309-10, 313-16
Nagel, Thomas, 32, 192, 391-403, 404-14, 478, 481
native Chinese speakers, 355
natural selection, 124, 126, 129-32, 199
nature: laws of, 337-38, 341, 343; regularities in, 451; suatification of, 195
Nazis, 114 necessary time, 342
Necker cube, 221
negative feedback, 135
neobehaviorism, 399
neoevolution theory, 109
nervous disorders of ant colony, 163
nervous system, 142; continuity of, 64-65; evolution of, 304; of lobster, 266; prosthetic. 222
neural chains, 436
neural clerk, 446
neural dance, 453
neural discharges, random, 106
neural flash, 167, 436-37, 450, 452-53, 456
neural identity, 209-10
neurobiology, 42
neurological components of behavior, 36
neurons, 166, 185, 268, 377, 379; connecting hemispheres, 203-8; in Einstein book, 437, 441-43,446; feeding of experience to, 207-12; firing of, 167, 177, 194, 202, 203, 208, 342, 363, 364, 435-36; and laws of physics, 76: locality of response to stimuli of, 385; nervous impulse impinging on, 65; and perception of brain state, 282; programmed by symbols, 282
neurophysiology, 363, 369; of bats, 394, 397
neuroscience, 217, 465
neurotransmitters, 377
neutron star, 77, 145
Newell, Allen, 358, 364, 477
Newton, Isaac, 37, 42, 130
Newtonian mechanics, 145
Newtonian physics, 36
Nickles, Thomas, 472
Nietszche, Friedrich, 295, 469
Nilsson, Nils, 471
Nim Chimpsky, 470
Nirvana, 334
Nisbett, Richard, 471
nodes, 194
noise, thermal, 41
nominative case, 407-8
noncognitive subsystems, 360
non-Euclidean geometry, 374
nonquantum-mechanical computational models, 43
nonzero sum game, 312
Norman, Donald, 471, 473
nose, 26, 467
nosrep, 404
novels: meaning of 81- point of view in, 350-351; world as, 461; see also fictional charcters

novel-writing computer, 69; 350
Nozick, Robert, 461-64
nuclear particles, 145
number theory, 150-51, 187
Numbers, Ralph, 256-65, 267-68
numerical conversion tables, 439, 382
numerological mapping schemes, 382
numina, 347


object, unique relationship to itself of, 278
objectivity, 43; of nature, 120; vs. subjectivity, 395, 396, 398-9, 402, 409-11, of thinking machines, 84
Obler, Loraine K., 477
oblivion, abysses of, 292
observers, 27, 43, 281; conscious, status as, 43, 44; external, 8; interpretation by, 371; and measurement, 38, 43; mind of, 37; and relativity theory, 37; separate states for, 46
ocean waves, 125 -Lave, 163
Ojemann, George A., 193, 473
Olympic Torch, 409
omnipotence, 313 of God, 57, 316;
ominiscience, 326
ontology, 303, 463, 464; personoid, 310, 316; questions of, 466
operationalism, 93, 290, 371
opportunism of evolution, 305
opposite sex, what is it like to be?, 406
optical conversion tables, 447
order vs. chaos, 167, 168
orders of magnitude, 375
organ point, 183, 184
organic molecules, 127
organic quality of entity, 80
organisms, 199; complexity of molecules in, 125; needs of, 11
organizations, personification of, 192
origin, sameness of, 80
Orthodox Judaism, 333
Orwell, George, 386
Osgood, C. E., 480
osmosis, 307
other minds, 9-11, 13-14, 24, 32, 79; and artificial intelligence, 366; nonexistence of, 30; Taoism on, 82
otherness, 32
outside, consciousness from, 8-10
oxygen, 145, 242


pacifism, 90
pain, 8-10, 95, 240, 328, 462; and artificial intellicence, 370; in bat experience, 395; causal behaviorist analysis of, 400; as illusion, 425; punishment of evil with, 329; see also suffering
paintings, 451: static nature of, 192
palates, 114
panpsychism, 83, 381
paper, slips of, 378
parabola, 451
parabolic reflector, 141
paradoxes, 422, 425, 454; fundamental, 277; logical, 325; self-referential, 275-79
parallel processing, 318
parallel worlds, 46
paranoia: of chimpanzee, 104; computer simulation of, 91, 469
parents, body made by, 47; my essence depends on my, 468
Parkinson, K. C., 469

Parmenides, 213
parrots, 378
PARRY, 91-92, 469
Parsons, Terence,476
particle accelerator, 79
particles: altering paths of, 196; animate interplay of, 291; soul as gulf between pies and, 385; underlying laws of, 193
particulateness of genes, 133
parts: relationship of, 433; see also sums o', wholes vs. parts
Pascal, Blaise, 311
passion, 84
passive symbols, 176, 178
Pat, 69-92
path of least resistance, 436, 452, 453
patriotism, 114
Pattee, Howard H., 472
pattern oriented mechanism, 86
patterns: abstract, 78; complex, of atop 125; decoding of, 101-2; existence of, guistic, 107; of molecules, 170; of firings, 177; recognition of, 201; thou, 78
Pavlovians, 35 peace, 288
Pedersen, 243-44, 246, 248
people: grouping of atoms to manufacture, 124; as machines, 89
Pepys, Samuel, 106
perception, 8, 35, 74, 122, 213, 294, 395 in bat sonar, 394, 395; of brain state, 282; of colour 479; doubting one's own, 426; of God,:330; and imagination, 400; indirect, 76; and mirrors 192; modeling of, 282; modes of, 11, 156-57; objective description of, 402; and perceiver, 299; of personoids, 16;and reasoning, 343; relativity of, 290, 292, 297, 299, 301,:302 and self-perception, 199; shift of, 196; on symbol level, 182; visual, 467
perceptual aboutness, 406
percipi, 299
perfection: failures as product of, 287;333
Perry, John, 466, 467
Perry, Ralph Barton, 482
person, 225; duplicating, 7, 466; fusing, 466; mental image of, 21; of non-dominant hemisphere, 14; as program, 97; splitting, 466
personal identity, 4, 468; quantum mechanics and problem of, 48
personal vs. impersonal views, 335
personal location, 221, 224, 237
personal nonexistence, incomprehensibility of, 30
personality, 225; attribution of, 114;in eyes of beholder, 335; hierarchical organization of, 342; imitation of, 305; and resolution of inner conflict, 342; as style. 84
personality traits, 385
personetics, 296-317, 413
personhood, 224, 406; recognition of 76
perspective, 453; shift in, 224
phenomenalism, 301
phenomenology: bat, 395; Martian, 395; and objectivity, 396, 402-3; visual, 397
philosophical psychology, 399
philosophy, 64, 274, 317, 319, 467, 470;Eastern, 341; of the mind, 217, 232; personoid, 310; physicalist, 224; of science, 37, 93
photoelectric cells, 358
photons, 94
photosynthesis, 8, 367; simulation of, 372
physical vs. mental, 404
physical parts, person as nothing more than, 89

physical symbol system, 365
physicalism, 393, 400-4
physics, 195, 199, 301; antimatter postulated in, 388: atomic. 36; building blocks of, 6; on consciousness, 304; epistemological problems in, 414: integration of biology and psychology with, 39; laws of, 66, 142, 144, 319; materialism in, 34; mirror puzzle in, 404; on nature of space, 298; observer systems in, 44-45; twodimensional, 319
physiology, 35, 212; and behavior, 36; and origin of thought, 41
pi, 7, 151; value of, 65
Picasso, Pablo, 59, 406
pigeons, 273, 393
pigs, 114
piranhas, 114
planets: chemical raw materials present on, 126;
distant, voyages to, 142
plants as survival machines, 133
Plastic Big Hawley, 236-39
plastic surgery, 225
plate tectonics, 77
Plato, 466
plausibility, 106
playing records, see records playthings, 103
pocket calculators, 84
poetic license, 268
poetry, 319
point of view, 9, 13, 24, 25, 278, 434; of ants, 173; changing, 174; in dreams, 350; toward God, 335; levels of, 179; location of 221-24, 237; me-ness attached to, 48; and per sonetics, 301; of programmers, 355; of robot, 268; as sentience, 406; shifts in, 196; and subjective character of experience, 393, 396-99, 402, 409, 411, 413; switching, 343; and thought experiments, 376, 381; uninhabited or vacated, 268
poison, 105
polar hears, 139
polygon, philosophical, 309
pond-hole experience, 203, 204
Popper, Karl, 477
positive-negative replication, 128
potato chips, 342
Potter, Beatrix, 268
power: and knowledge, 313; of the "Word," 274; see also causal powers
precognition, 66, 68
preconscious concepts, 267 predictionism, 197
predictions: genetic, 139: through simulation, 139
preludes, 154, 190; relationship between fugues and, 154-55
Premack, David, 470
pressure, 168
Pribram, Karl, 472
primal grammar, 107
primal intuition, 335
primal loop, 283
primates: autobiographers, 460; difference from other animals of, 41: intentionality ascribed to, 365; language of, 106, 107; see also specific species
prime factors, 195
prime numbers, 387
primeval soup, 127-30, 133
primitives, talking to trees by, 335
primordial cause, 195
Prince of Wales. 387
principles, soul as gulf between particles and, 385
prism-shaped glasses, 412
privacy of experience, 396

"private 1," 281
privacy of mind. 7-9
probability, 127; in quantum mechanics, 43
probability distribution, 38
problem solving, 9, 361
process: God as, 333-34; person as, 444, 446
products that think, 70
programmer, role of, 136-37
programming: of Analytical Engine, 64; of computer by itself, 63
programs: Al, see artificial intelligence and specific
programs; of domino-chain network, 195; emulation by, 412; feelingless, 84; mind as, 243;operating in parallel, 363; person as, 97; inpersonetics, 299. 300, 307; point of view of, 410, 411; read out of brains, 252; redesigners of computers, 252; representational, 193;rigid, extinction of, 200; self-model absent in, 82; self-monitoring abilities of, 282; self understanding abilities of, 282; trust of protoplasm in, 112; Turing tests of, 90; see also simulation
project, 120
projection, 114, 115, 374, 413; language as medium of, 413-14; see also mapping
pronoun' he," 443
proofs, 94-95; of existence of God, 315; of theorems, 151, 153
properties: emergent, 145; on other levels, 84; of wholes vs. parts, 144
propositional content, 362
Prospero, 464
prosthetic vision, 231, 411, 475
proteins, 35, 88, 125; synthesis of, 139
proto-carnivores, 131
protoplasm, 112
Proust, Marcel, 69
psyche, 305; influence of sensory deprivation on,306; scientific observation of, 42 psychiatrists: atheism of, 330; fooled by computer, 91, 469
psychic distancing, 221
psychics, 195
psychoanalysts, 480
psychokinesis,66
psycholinguistics, 14, 273
psychology, 34; AI as branch of, 361; extrasensory perception disputed by, 67; integration of biology and physics with, 39; introspective,369; life as experiment in, 32; philosophical, 399; physiological, 35
psechonics, 297
psvchophagi, 308 psychopathology,12
psvchophvsical theory, 391, 398, 401
Pucceti, Roland, 478
pulsars, 77
punishment: eternal, 383; for sins, 322, 324
purines, 127
purpose, 120
"purpose machine," 135
purposeful behavior, 172-74
purposiveness, 122, 191, 386
purring machine, 111, 112
Putnam, Hilary, 231n, 474-75, 478
Pvlshyn, Zenon. 360. 374
pyrimidines, 127


quantum electrodynamics, 145
quantum field theory, 145
quantum mechanics, 36-39, 41, 42, 48, 49, 167;many worlds interpretation of, 46. 458: of oxygen atom, 145

"quantum water faucet," 43
quarks, 458
question, unasking of, 162
Quine, Willard V. 0., 466


rabbits, 121, 268
radio: brain linked to body by, 218, 459; brain hemispheres connected by, 205-7; communication via, 137-38
radioactive decay, 38
random choices, 48
random events, 38
random number generator, 67
randomness, 106, 115, 166; of ants, 170, 172; of molecules, 168
rain drops, 124
rainstorms: information processing by, 371; simulation of, 370
Raphael, Bertram, 471, 476
rationality, 306, 477
readout of brain, 282
real world, interpretation of, 300
realism, 39, 107
reality, 456; bifurcation of, 338; consciousness as ultimate, 39; physical, 37; representation and, 94; of superpositions, 44
realization, distinction between program and, 369, 372
reason, 23; emotions at odds with, 305
reasoning, 343
rebirth, 244
recognition, 9
recombinant DNA, 271
records, 149, 431-33, 439, 440, 448-52
Red King, 349
reducibility of experience, objection to, 399
reductholism, 190
reductio ad absurdum, 76, 212, 458-9
reductionism, 35, 40112, 93, 144, 159-62, 182, 190, 196-97, 391-93, 397-99,472,473, 478; vs. holism, 162; physiological and biological, 3637; translatability of holism and, 196
reflection, 193
reincarnation, 5
relativity: of perceptions, 74, 290, 292, 297, 299, 301, 302; theory of, 37, 145, 196; of time scales, 145
religion, 334, 341 repertoire, innate, 31 replication, 113
replicators, 127-31; cultural, 143-44; software, 145; survival of, 122
representation, 94; internal display of, 266; ofknowledge in ant colony, 170 representational power, 199
representational systems, 192, 281, 379, 382, 411, 473; of bats, 412; relationship between facts and, 396; of soul-free objects, 386
repression, 12
reproduction, 8
reproductive act, 109
Reps, Paul, 45, 467
"Reset" button, 295
resistance of axons, 435
restaurants, stories about, 354, 359
retarded people, 107
retroactive causality, 197
revelation, 311
reverberation, 437
revolution, 342; in scientific world view, 68
rewards, 107
Riddle of the Universe, 269-76
"right stuff." 365 497

right and wrong, distinction between, 339-40
Ringle, Martin, 471, 477
Rip Van Winkle, 482
ripples, 44
rivers, 120
RNA, 274, 458
Robbins, Tom, 295
robots, 87, 96, 471; and artificial intelligence, 362-65; autonomous, 255-65; canned sentences intoned by, 92; computer control of, 21; computers dreaming they are, 318; consciousness of, 8-10, 13: functional and intentional states of, 392; of oneself, 234-41; point of view of, 268; programmed for self-preservation, 123; self-protective, 266
rocks, 125; attribution of intention to, 120; molded by free play of physical forces, 120
Rokeach, Milton, 482
romanticism, II "rooms" of brain, 452
Rorty, Amelie 0., 393, 466, 473, 474
Rorty, Richard, 478
Rosenblith, W., 473
Rosser, J. B., 58
rotating frame, 196
"round one," 441 R2D2, 87
Rucker, Rudy, 253-68
rules of behavior, 65-66
Rumbaugh, Duane, 470
Rumelhart, David, 473
rumors, 287
rusty hinges, oiling of, 453
ruthlessness of spirit, 120


Saccheri, Gerolamo, 374
Sacks, Oliver, 482
sadness, simulation of, 83
Sagan, Carl, 35, 39
Sainter, 299
saints, difference between sinners and, 333
Salinger, J. D., 406
salt crystals, 125
salvation, 328, 332, 334
Sanborn, Mr., 426-29
Sands, Matthew, 467
Sandy, 69-92
Sanford, David Hawley, 231, 232-41, 475
Santa Claus, 4, 256
Satori, 276
Saunders, M. D., 481
Savage, C. Wade, 471
Savage-Rumbaugh, Sue, 470
Savodnick, I., 472
scale, narrative problem of, 459
"scattering" questions off target mind, 79 scent, 121
Schank, Roger, 354-56, 358, 367, 362-63, 373, 469, 473, 477
Schopenhauer, Arthur, 42
Schreiber, Flora Rheta, 479
Schrodinger, Erwin, 38, 45
.Schrodinger s cat, 38, 45, 46
science, 7, 31, 319, 457; and accounts of consciousness, 11; extending familiar concepts,77; hard, rigorous methods of, 460; materialism in, 34; philosophy of, 37, 93; secrets revealed by, 8; and spirit, 122; as storytelling, 460
science fiction, 74, 465
scientific induction, 61, 63
scientific method, 120
scientific world view, 6; revolution in, 68
Scriabin, Alexander, 455

scribes, 128
Scriptures, 383, 462
sculpted forms, grooves of records as, 433
sea: acoustics of, 138; of possibilities, 42
Searle, John R., 93, 94, 268, 352, 353-82, 384, 387, 407, 477
Searle's demon, 376, 378, 380
seaslugs, 10
seeing, 6, 30; two distinct types of, 32
self, 5, 466, 467; belief in, 7; as by-product of organism, 167; continuity of, 410; and control, 268, 453; inhabiting body, 24; interlevel feedback in creation of, 279; and mirror-image, 28; and otherness, 32; process of creation of, 352; riddles of, 458; as sentience, 406; thinking about, 20-22, 467
self-awareness, 182, 447
self-consciousness, 11, 182, 266-67, 340; capacity of machines for, 61, 63; in chimpanzees, 471; self-regarding behavior without, 266; of spirit, 122
self-contradictory belief system, 277
self-deception, 29
self-defense, 12
self-destructive tendencies, 305 s
elf-engulfing television system, 279, 281
selfhood, 266
self-image: introspective, 41; pattern of, on TVscreen, 281; of soul-free objects, 386
selfishness, 4, 142, 228
self-model, 82, 83
self-organizing processes, 291; of mind, 294
self-perception, 29, 199
self-portrait, 86
self-preservation, 131
self-recognition, 19, 28
self-reference, 92, 181, 475; indirect, 184; looplike, 279; parameters of, 281
self-referential paradoxes, 275-79, 475
self-reflecting mirrors, 304
self-regard, 266, 268
self-reliance of computers, 87
self-replicating systems, 41
self-representation, 21
self-reproductive power, 113
self symbol, 200, 264-67, 413
selves, multiple, 12
semantic differentials, 480
semantic level of processing, 15
semantic potential, 196
semantics, 375, 406; computers' lack of, 368, 370
semiautonomous subsystems, 200
Seng-Ts'an, 339
senility, 107, 248, 409
sensations, 8, 26, 122
senses: God as, 330; human, 394; see also hearing; perception; vision
sensory deprivation, 306
sensory input messages, 167
sensory modalities, 11, equivalence of, 411, 433
sentences: comprehension of, 14; constructed bypersonoids, 302; identity-asserting, 408
sentience, creation of, 297
Septuagint, 128
sequence of neural firing, 363
servo-control, 111, 141
Seuss, Dr., 78
sex, true nature of, 114
sex-change operations, 225
sex-role differences, 72
sexual reproduction, 132; and personetics, 309
sexuality, 250
shadows: confusion of reality and, 77; formal. 367
Shakespeare, William, 382, 462, 464

"Shakey," 21-22
"she loves me, she loves me not," 47
Shoemaker, Sydney, 474
short-term memory, 410
shortwave radio, 76
SHRDLU, 317, 354, 475
Siamese twins, 406
Sigma-5 computer, 380, 412
signals, 171-72, 176, 177, 180, 199; purposefulness of, 174
signs, linguistic, 107
Simon, Herbert, 358, 471, 472, 477
simplicity, 124
simulated worlds, 317-18, 476; see also personetics
simulation, 87, 94, 139-42, 145; of ability to use language, 294; of bat experience, 414; of chemical conditions of Earth before life, 126-27; of cognitive capacities, 353 (see also artificial intelligence); of complex behavior, 73; confusion ofreality and, 73; of cow, 94, 372; of death, 308; duplication distinguished from, 369-71: emulation distinguished from, 380, 477; of hurricane, 73-78; of interacting molecules, 145; oflactation or photosynthesis, 372; of Middle Ages, 97; of paranoid, 91; of primordial light ning, 126; of sadness, 83; of sensory perception, 234; of thought, 73; time needed to run, 318, 459; of a world, 476
sinning, 321-25, 327-29, 336, 339, 341
641 (prime number), 194, 387
size of simulation, 376
skepticism, 27-28; about artificial intelligence, 69; about Fermat's Last Theorem, 150-51 skill, 246
skintact, 233-34
slaughter, random, 115
slaughterhouses, 114
sleep, 9
slipperiness, biological, 89
Slobodkin, Lawrence B., 41
Sloman, Aaron, 201, 473
Slote, Michael, 476 slugs, 121
small-souled men, 107 Smart, J. J. C., 478
"smart bullets," 90
Smullyan, Raymond, 92, 265, 321-40, 340-43, 383-84, 384-88, 415-26, 427-29, 467, 479
Smythies, J. R., 473
soap bubbles, 125
Sober, Elliott, 472 social behavior, 34
social processes, large-scale, 302
socialization, 302 sociobiology, 37, 40
sociodynamics, 303
sociology, 140
Socrates, 31, 144 S
Socratic method, 326
sodium channels, 193-94
sodium ions, 125
software, 80, 89; mind as. 243; preservation of, 261; replicators of, 145; see also programs software universe, see personetics
solar energy, 260, 262
solar system, 126; clockwork, 122
solids, 145
solipsism, 60, 61, 83, 400, 456; on human condition, 30-32
sonar, 141; of bats. 393, 395, 402; of blind people, 397
song, mentality like a, 95; simulated, 97, 99
"Sonic Oven," 275
sonnet-writing machine, 60

soul, 5, 25, 32; attribution of, 114; in book, 450; brain as physical seat of, 220; collapse of two souls into one, 407; of cow, 386; dualistic no tion of, 381; exhaustion of, 345; flamelike notion of, 408-9; and free will, 454; greater than hum of its parts, 191; of hurricane, 75; immateriality of, 224; as incompressible core,385; interlevel feedback in creation of, 279, 281; and mind, 107; miracle drug to annihilate, 383, 384, 386; nature of, 385; as neural dance, 453; of personoids, 303, 306, 317, 318; of a prince, 465; and self-reproductive power, 113; as sentience, 406; and spirit, 121; thinking as function of, 57; transmigration of, 5; true seat of, 233
soul-breaking, 386
soul-killing, 114
soul meter, 107
soul searching, 4, 47
soulism, 197
sound, 438; of words, 456; as wave phenomenon, 141, 399
sow. offspring crushed to death by, 110
space: curved, 458; different size-scales in, 197; discrete, 319; locality in, 319, 385; minusculecapering of electrons in, 291; movement of object through, 282; nature of, 298
spacecraft, 125
space-time continuum, 327
spatial proximity, 449
specialization, 169, 171
species-specific viewpoint, 398, 399
speech center, neutral activity of, 101
speech impairment of ant colony, 163-64
speech neurons, 442
speech organs, 438
SPEECHIAC, 351
speed of operations, 376
spelling, 266
Sperry, R. W., 472
spiders, 9
Spinoza, Baruch, 19
spiral galaxies, 122, 145
spirit, 4, 119-22
split-brain research, 14-15, 481
split characters, 47 split self, 47
Spoilar, 209-12
spontaneity, 120 s
portscasters, 31
squid, 121
squiggles and squoggles, 359-60; of Chinese, 378; meaningless, 378
SRI International, 21
stability, 125-26
Sta-Hi, 257
starquakes, 77
stars, 125
states, 178, 193; superpositions of, 193; see also brain states; mental states
statistics, 168; regularity of, 166
steam shovels, 86
steel hammer, 112
Steiner, George, 414, 477
stimulus, 114
stomachs, information processing by, 360, 371
Stonehenge, 382
stories, capacity to understand, 254-60, 363, 369, 370, 373
storytelling and science, 460
"strange loops," 475
stratification, 195, 199
Stratton, G. M.. 475
Strawson, Peter, 249
Stretto of fugue, 164-65

strong A1, 353, 361, 366
structural integrity, 449-50
structure-altering numbers, 437 s
stuff, 375; mental and physical, 387
style, individual, 385
subatomic collisions, 291
subconscious, 156, 158; biases of, 84; and creativity, 283
subject, 406; duality of object and, 25; fluctuation
between object and, 33
subjectivity, 43, 478; of experience, 392-93, 39596, 402-3, 409-14; imputed to animals, 134;and quantum physics, 46; of time experience, 302
sublimation, 282
subliminal appeals, 113
subminds, 14
subpersonal information processing system,233, 237
subpersons, 342
subsystems of brain, 13, 14; active, 176; free will of, 341-42; of God, 48; rival, 201; semiautonomous, 200; understanding in, 359
Subtillion, 96, 98
Suci, G. J., 480
suffering, 328, 462; creation of, 291, 292, 294; end to, by annihilation of soul, 384; evil as, 333; sinning as cause of, 336
sugar, 372
suicide, 90, 383
sums of parts, 144-45, 187, 432
Sun, 120, 458; setting, 47;
stability of atoms in, 125
sunlight, 126
super-ego, 12
Superman, 388
superposition of states, 43-44, 46, 47, 193
Supersonic Tunneling Underground Device (STUD), 217, 226
surprises, 155
survival: of fittest, 124; of stable, 124
survival machines, 122, 131-34, 137, 140, 141, 458
swans, 340
Swanson, J. W., 478
swirling, style of, 79
Swiss cheese, 381
syllogisms, 30-31
symbolic imagination, 400
symbolic logic, s424
symbols, 176-84, 192, 193, 200, 281; active, 265; manipulation of, 76, 107, 180, 355-56, 359,361-65, 368, 370, 372, 373, 377; modification of, 412; musical, 433; nonreflexive, 200; in number theory, 187-88; programming of neurons by, 282; vs. signals, 177-78; triggering patterns of, 177-81, 380, 413; that understand themselves, 458
symmetry: external, of body, 404; of "to be," 407-8
sympathetic imagination, 400
sympathy, 106
symphony, existence of, 6
symptoms of consciousness, 10
synapses, 35, 377, 378; coding of high-level goals into, 385; sequence of, 367; simulated, 363, 364; systematic changes in structures of, 282
synchronization, condition of, 207-10
synergy, 89
synonyms, 114
syntax, 106, 375, 406; of beliefs, 369; of computers, 368, 370; of personoids, 302; simple minded, 108
systems creation, 298

systems theory, 358-62, 374, 377
Szechuan food, 428

tactile perception, 234
talking to God, 330-31
Tammer, 304
Tannenbaum, Andrew, 380, 477
Tannenbaum, P. H., 480
Taoism, 82, 330, 333, 338, 341, 467 tapes, mind, 243-9, 252
Tapscott, B. L., 476
target-tracking computers, 90
taste, 427-28
"team" of ants, 168, 171
technology, 3, 207; and artificial intelligence, 366-67; of information processing, 299; runaway, 275; survival-machine, 132; telepresence,240; for transferring information between different brains, 252
teddy bears, 114
Teleclone Mark V teleporter, 7
Teleclone Mark IV teleporter, 3-4, 7
telekinesis, 68
teleology, 83, 120, 122, 172, 174, 196, 197
telepathy, 66-67, 307
telephones, 361-62;
time service, 378
teleporter, 3-4, 7
telepresence, 240, 475
television, 193, 212-13, 447-48; closed-circuit, 20; interlevel feedback on, 279, 281; seeing oneself on, 266; in simulation of vision, 411
temperature, 168
template, replicator as, 127, 128
tempo, 155
Terrace, Herbert, 470
terrorism, 192, 386
Terry, 242, 243, 245, 246, 248
tesseract, 298
TEX, 259-61
Thatcher, R. W., 466
Thaumaturge, 96, 99
theodicy, 309, 311, 312, 314, 316
theogony, 300, 314; experimental, 296
theology. 312; liberation of science from, 42; objection to thinking machines in, 57-58
thermodynamics, 39, 308
thermostats, 358, 371; beliefs of, 361
Thigpen, Corbett H., 479
thing: "it is like something to be," 13, 478; as stable collection of atoms, 124; see also BATs
thinking, 4, 6; about one's self, 20-22, 467; by dogs, 32; impossibility of stopping, 25; and feeling, 81; emotions as automatic side effects of, 81; by machines, 53-67, 70. 84, 368, 372 (see also artificial intelligence); and organization of entity, 80; in second language, 379, 477; as sentience,406; test for, 80
third-person perspective, 20, 30
Thomas, Dylan, 115
Thomas, St., 57, 336
Thoreau, Henry David, 203
thornbush, 125
Thornton, M. T., 478
thought, 35, 39; appearance and character of, 42; awareness of, 181; capacity for, 21; imitation of, 305; influence on electron of, 195; language of, 274; and machines, 60, 110; mechanisms of, 196; and neural flash, 452; origin of, 41; as pattern. 78; personoid, 302; and point of view, 221; as primary. 39; production of, 13; simulation of, 73, 77; and spirit, 120
thought experiments, 8, 375, 458, 459, 479
thread, thickening at end of, 119

thresholds, 167, 171, 435-36
thrills, 155
thrown grapefruit, 451
thunder, 126
time, 38, 42; dimension of, 297, 310; discrete, 319; before evolution, 124; locality in, 319, 385; manipulation of, 316, 318; movement of object through, 282; and prediction, 197; subjectivity of experience of, 302
time scales: relativity of, 145; varying, 174, 441, 446
time-varying intelligence, 409 Tin Woodman, 237
"tinklers," 198
title of this book, 408
toilet paper and small stones, computer constructed of, 369
top-down control, 342
topology, 207-9, 274
Tortoise, 149-91, 195; in Jardin du Luxembourg, 430-57
Tortoise's song, 452
total self-knowledge, 454
toxicological assays, 271
*toy worlds," 476
transfinite numbers, 396
transitive verb, 408
translations, 99; perversion of meaning in, 128
transmigration of souls, 5
transparency of mind to itself, I I
trees: talking to, 335, 339; see also forest triangles, equilateral, 336
triggering patterns of symbols, 177-81, 380,
413
tropism, 121
true love, 404
Trurl, 287-94
truth, 331; of expressible propositions, 396; of mental states, 358n
TSR cones, 411-12
Ts'ui P6n, 42
tuning, 247-48
Turing, Alan M., 53-67, 67-71, 377, 379, 469 70
Turing machine, 274, 276, 354
Turing test, 69-95, 107, 115, 306, 360, 371, 373, 375, 376, 378, 409, 469
Tweedledee, 349
Tweedledum, 349-50
"Twin Earth" thought experiment, 231, 474-5
two-dimensional physics, 319
typewriters, 371; nonfunctioning, 144
tyrants, 339


Ullman, Shimon, 467
ultimate perfection, 333
ultraviolet light, 126, 127
unconscious concepts, 267
unconscious processes, 9. 12-15; and neural firing patterns, 386; in scientific induction, 61;sublimation of conscious activity into, 282
unconscious purposive behavior, 135
understanding, 400; of jokes, 80; of language, 405; nature of, 353-63, 368-70, 374, 377, 378, 381
uninterpreted formal symbols, 355-56
unitary feeling of self, 48
universal machines, 56
universal wave function, 46, 48; collapse of, 48
universe, 287, 34 1; arcana of, 347;author of, 462, 463; beginning of, 124, 125; boundryless, 343; chaotic. 343: creation of new. 327: cybernetic.

318; electron composing whole, 318; five-dayold, 231; and laws of physics. 142; mechanical models of. 34; mechanistic interpretation of, 300; mystical view of, 38; radio communication with 137-38; soul-free, 386; soul meriting participation in, 345; as uniform dispersion of matter, 120
nsayable and unthinkable, doctrines of, 274
updating. 170, 181
upward causality, 197, 343
utilitarianism,. 328. 333, 336


vacuum, problem of, 145
van Inwagen, Peter, 476
varying time scales, 318, 441, 446
vegetarians, 114
Vendler, Zeno, 478
verificationism, 93
vicarious experience, 414
vicarious trial and error, 140
vicious circle, 194
Viet Nam war, 114
virgin, Greek word for, 128
virtual machines, 380
viruses, 113, 121
vision, 25, 394, 397; of computers, 87, 193; prosthetic, 411, 475
visual cortex, 231
vitalism, 36
vivisectionists, 309
vocal-cord-directing neuron. 438
voice, 76; echoic hearing of own, 222
voice synthesizer, 102
voices: existence of, 6, 466; of fugue, 155-59, 165, 183, 190; visual, of ant fugue, 175
volcanoes, 120, 126
volition, see free will volume. 168
Vulcan, 264-65


Wagstaff, 258-64
wake of boat, 44, 437
Walton, Kendall, 476
wanting, 120
war. 288
Warrington, E. K., 481
water, 126; boiling, 173; properties of, 144, 145; stable form of, for spacecraft, 125
water-H20 problem, 391
water pipe simulation of brain. 363-64, 369
Watt governor, 135
wave function, 45, 48
wave-function, universal, 48
waves, movement of, 172
Way of Nature, 340
weak Al, 353
weather prediction programs. 88
Wbb Judson, 470, 475

Wechselmann, Dr., 221
Weiskrantz, L., 481
Weizenbaum, Joseph, 354, 369, 469, 471
Well-Tempered Clavier (Bach), 154-55,185, 190
Weltanschauung of bats, 412
whales, 393
"What is it like to be X?," 301, 391-414
Wheeler, John Archibald, 213, 318, 45
Wheeler, William Morton, 472
Wheelis, Allen, 119-22, 122-23
Whitely, C. H., 277-78, 475
Whitely's sentence, 277, 278
Whitman, Walt, 341
whole-brain experience, 205-6
wholes vs. parts, 89, 144-45, 158, 162,
Wiener, Norbert, 297
Wigner, Eugene, 39, 467
Wilensky, Robert, 373 will, 120; see also free wilt
William the Conqueror, 144
Williams, Bernard, 466
Williams, G C 144
Wilson, Edward 0., 472
Wilson, Timothy De Camp, 471
Wimsatt, William, 472 wind chimes, 197-99
Winer, Deborah, 481
Winograd, Terry, 317, 354, 373, 475,
Winston, Patrick Henry, 471, 473
Wolf, Susan, 476
woman in imitation game, 71-72
Woodfield, Andrew, 468
Woodruff, Guy, 470
woods, see forest
Wooldridge, Dean, 472
words: arbitrary juxtapositions of, 106 articulation of concepts in, 282; groping for, 163; vs. letters, 177-79; mapping real world onto. 179; meaning of, 128, 428, 455-56; proper ways of using, 196; as tools, 130
worldline, 282-83
Worms, Austin, 242-46, 249
written musical scores, 433
"wrong stuff," 369


Yorick, 220-21, 226-33, 236, 238
Young, J. Z., 139
young woman, Hebrew word for, 128

Zen Buddhism, 45, 339, 467; state of satori in 276; unasking the question in, 162
Zend, 344
Zeno, 444, 457
Zipperupus,96-98
zombies, 13
Zuboff, Arnold, 202-12, 212-13, 374,
Zukav. Gary. 38

1 comment:

汪先送 said...

Not sure if you're planning to attend CES again this year, lotro gold but if you are, I'd like to invite you to the blogger-only party hosted by the Blog Business Summit team.buy cheap wow gold.